BalancedRandomForestClassifier

class imbalanced_ensemble.ensemble.BalancedRandomForestClassifier(n_estimators=50, *, criterion='gini', max_depth=None, min_samples_split=2, min_samples_leaf=1, min_weight_fraction_leaf=0.0, max_features='auto', max_leaf_nodes=None, min_impurity_decrease=0.0, bootstrap=True, oob_score=False, replacement=False, n_jobs=None, random_state=None, verbose=0, warm_start=False, class_weight=None, ccp_alpha=0.0, max_samples=None)

A balanced random forest classifier.

A balanced random forest randomly under-samples each boostrap sample to balance it.

Parameters
n_estimatorsint, default=50

The number of trees in the forest.

criterion{“gini”, “entropy”}, default=”gini”

The function to measure the quality of a split. Supported criteria are “gini” for the Gini impurity and “entropy” for the information gain. Note: this parameter is tree-specific.

max_depthint, default=None

The maximum depth of the tree. If None, then nodes are expanded until all leaves are pure or until all leaves contain less than min_samples_split samples.

min_samples_splitint or float, default=2

The minimum number of samples required to split an internal node:

  • If int, then consider min_samples_split as the minimum number.

  • If float, then min_samples_split is a percentage and ceil(min_samples_split * n_samples) are the minimum number of samples for each split.

min_samples_leafint or float, default=1

The minimum number of samples required to be at a leaf node:

  • If int, then consider min_samples_leaf as the minimum number.

  • If float, then min_samples_leaf is a fraction and ceil(min_samples_leaf * n_samples) are the minimum number of samples for each node.

min_weight_fraction_leaffloat, default=0.0

The minimum weighted fraction of the sum total of weights (of all the input samples) required to be at a leaf node. Samples have equal weight when sample_weight is not provided.

max_features{“auto”, “sqrt”, “log2”}, int, float, or None, default=”auto”

The number of features to consider when looking for the best split:

  • If int, then consider max_features features at each split.

  • If float, then max_features is a percentage and int(max_features * n_features) features are considered at each split.

  • If “auto”, then max_features=sqrt(n_features).

  • If “sqrt”, then max_features=sqrt(n_features) (same as “auto”).

  • If “log2”, then max_features=log2(n_features).

  • If None, then max_features=n_features.

Note: the search for a split does not stop until at least one valid partition of the node samples is found, even if it requires to effectively inspect more than max_features features.

max_leaf_nodesint, default=None

Grow trees with max_leaf_nodes in best-first fashion. Best nodes are defined as relative reduction in impurity. If None then unlimited number of leaf nodes.

min_impurity_decreasefloat, default=0.0

A node will be split if this split induces a decrease of the impurity greater than or equal to this value. The weighted impurity decrease equation is the following:

N_t / N * (impurity - N_t_R / N_t * right_impurity
                    - N_t_L / N_t * left_impurity)

where N is the total number of samples, N_t is the number of samples at the current node, N_t_L is the number of samples in the left child, and N_t_R is the number of samples in the right child. N, N_t, N_t_R and N_t_L all refer to the weighted sum, if sample_weight is passed.

bootstrapbool, default=True

Whether bootstrap samples are used when building trees.

oob_scorebool, default=False

Whether to use out-of-bag samples to estimate the generalization accuracy.

replacementbool, default=False

Whether or not to sample randomly with replacement or not.

n_jobsint, default=None

The number of jobs to run in parallel for both fit() and predict(). None means 1 unless in a joblib.parallel_backend context. -1 means using all processors. See Glossary for more details.

random_stateint, RandomState instance or None, default=None

Control the randomization of the algorithm. Within each iteration, a different seed is generated for each sampler. If the base estimator accepts a random_state attribute, a different seed is generated for each instance in the ensemble. Pass an int for reproducible output across multiple function calls.

  • If int, random_state is the seed used by the random number generator;

  • If RandomState instance, random_state is the random number generator;

  • If None, the random number generator is the RandomState instance used by np.random.

verboseint, default=0

Controls the verbosity of the tree building process.

warm_startbool, default=False

When set to True, reuse the solution of the previous call to fit and add more estimators to the ensemble, otherwise, just fit a whole new forest.

class_weightdict, list of dicts, {“balanced”, “balanced_subsample”}, default=None

Weights associated with classes in the form dictionary with the key being the class_label and the value the weight. If not given, all classes are supposed to have weight one. For multi-output problems, a list of dicts can be provided in the same order as the columns of y. Note that for multioutput (including multilabel) weights should be defined for each class of every column in its own dict. For example, for four-class multilabel classification weights should be [{0: 1, 1: 1}, {0: 1, 1: 5}, {0: 1, 1: 1}, {0: 1, 1: 1}] instead of [{1:1}, {2:5}, {3:1}, {4:1}]. The “balanced” mode uses the values of y to automatically adjust weights inversely proportional to class frequencies in the input data as n_samples / (n_classes * np.bincount(y)) The “balanced_subsample” mode is the same as “balanced” except that weights are computed based on the bootstrap sample for every tree grown. For multi-output, the weights of each column of y will be multiplied. Note that these weights will be multiplied with sample_weight (passed through the fit method) if sample_weight is specified.

ccp_alphanon-negative float, default=0.0

Complexity parameter used for Minimal Cost-Complexity Pruning. The subtree with the largest cost complexity that is smaller than ccp_alpha will be chosen. By default, no pruning is performed.

max_samplesint or float, default=None

If bootstrap is True, the number of samples to draw from X to train each base estimator.

  • If None (default), then draw X.shape[0] samples.

  • If int, then draw max_samples samples.

  • If float, then draw max_samples * X.shape[0] samples. Thus, max_samples should be in the interval (0, 1).

Be aware that the final number samples used will be the minimum between the number of samples given in max_samples and the number of samples obtained after resampling.

Attributes
estimators_list of DecisionTreeClassifier

The collection of fitted sub-estimators.

samplers_list of RandomUnderSampler

The collection of fitted samplers.

estimators_n_training_samples_list of ints

The number of training samples for each fitted base estimators.

pipelines_list of Pipeline.

The collection of fitted pipelines (samplers + trees).

classes_ndarray of shape (n_classes,) or a list of such arrays

The classes labels (single output problem), or a list of arrays of class labels (multi-output problem).

n_classes_int or list

The number of classes (single output problem), or a list containing the number of classes for each output (multi-output problem).

n_features_in_int

The number of features when fit is performed.

n_outputs_int

The number of outputs when fit is performed.

feature_importances_ndarray of shape (n_features,)

The impurity-based feature importances.

oob_score_float

Score of the training dataset obtained using an out-of-bag estimate.

oob_decision_function_ndarray of shape (n_samples, n_classes)

Decision function computed with out-of-bag estimate on the training set. If n_estimators is small it might be possible that a data point was never left out during the bootstrap. In this case, oob_decision_function_ might contain NaN.

See also

EasyEnsembleClassifier

Bag of balanced boosted learners.

UnderBaggingClassifier

Bagging with intergrated random under-sampling.

SelfPacedEnsembleClassifier

Ensemble with self-paced dynamic under-sampling.

References

1

Chen, Chao, Andy Liaw, and Leo Breiman. “Using random forest to learn imbalanced data.” University of California, Berkeley 110 (2004): 1-12.

Examples

>>> from imbalanced_ensemble.ensemble import BalancedRandomForestClassifier
>>> from sklearn.datasets import make_classification
>>>
>>> X, y = make_classification(n_samples=1000, n_classes=3,
...                            n_informative=4, weights=[0.2, 0.3, 0.5],
...                            random_state=0)
>>> clf = BalancedRandomForestClassifier(random_state=0)
>>> clf.fit(X, y)  
BalancedRandomForestClassifier(...)
>>> clf.predict(X)  
array([...])

Methods

apply(X)

Apply trees in the forest to X, return leaf indices.

decision_path(X)

Return the decision path in the forest.

fit(X, y, *[, sample_weight, eval_datasets, ...])

Build a forest of trees from the training set (X, y).

get_params([deep])

Get parameters for this estimator.

predict(X)

Predict class for X.

predict_log_proba(X)

Predict class log-probabilities for X.

predict_proba(X)

Predict class probabilities for X.

score(X, y[, sample_weight])

Return the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.

set_params(**params)

Set the parameters of this estimator.

apply(X)

Apply trees in the forest to X, return leaf indices.

Parameters
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)

The input samples. Internally, its dtype will be converted to dtype=np.float32. If a sparse matrix is provided, it will be converted into a sparse csr_matrix.

Returns
X_leavesndarray of shape (n_samples, n_estimators)

For each datapoint x in X and for each tree in the forest, return the index of the leaf x ends up in.

decision_path(X)

Return the decision path in the forest.

New in version 0.18.

Parameters
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)

The input samples. Internally, its dtype will be converted to dtype=np.float32. If a sparse matrix is provided, it will be converted into a sparse csr_matrix.

Returns
indicatorsparse matrix of shape (n_samples, n_nodes)

Return a node indicator matrix where non zero elements indicates that the samples goes through the nodes. The matrix is of CSR format.

n_nodes_ptrndarray of shape (n_estimators + 1,)

The columns from indicator[n_nodes_ptr[i]:n_nodes_ptr[i+1]] gives the indicator value for the i-th estimator.

property feature_importances_

The impurity-based feature importances.

The higher, the more important the feature. The importance of a feature is computed as the (normalized) total reduction of the criterion brought by that feature. It is also known as the Gini importance.

Warning: impurity-based feature importances can be misleading for high cardinality features (many unique values). See sklearn.inspection.permutation_importance() as an alternative.

Returns
feature_importances_ndarray of shape (n_features,)

The values of this array sum to 1, unless all trees are single node trees consisting of only the root node, in which case it will be an array of zeros.

fit(X, y, *, sample_weight=None, eval_datasets: dict = None, eval_metrics: dict = None, train_verbose: bool = False)

Build a forest of trees from the training set (X, y).

Parameters
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)

The training input samples. Internally, its dtype will be converted to dtype=np.float32. If a sparse matrix is provided, it will be converted into a sparse csc_matrix.

yarray-like of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs)

The target values (class labels in classification, real numbers in regression).

sample_weightarray-like of shape (n_samples,)

Sample weights. If None, then samples are equally weighted. Splits that would create child nodes with net zero or negative weight are ignored while searching for a split in each node. In the case of classification, splits are also ignored if they would result in any single class carrying a negative weight in either child node.

eval_datasetsdict, default=None

Dataset(s) used for evaluation during the ensemble training process. The keys should be strings corresponding to evaluation datasets’ names. The values should be tuples corresponding to the input samples and target values.

Example: eval_datasets = {'valid' : (X_valid, y_valid)}

eval_metricsdict, default=None

Metric(s) used for evaluation during the ensemble training process.

  • If None, use 3 default metrics:

    • 'acc': sklearn.metrics.accuracy_score()

    • 'balanced_acc': sklearn.metrics.balanced_accuracy_score()

    • 'weighted_f1': sklearn.metrics.f1_score(average='weighted')

  • If dict, the keys should be strings corresponding to evaluation metrics’ names. The values should be tuples corresponding to the metric function (callable) and additional kwargs (dict).

    • The metric function should at least take 2 named/keyword arguments, y_true and one of [y_pred, y_score], and returns a float as the evaluation score. Keyword arguments:

      • y_true, 1d-array of shape (n_samples,), true labels or binary label indicators corresponds to ground truth (correct) labels.

      • When using y_pred, input will be 1d-array of shape (n_samples,) corresponds to predicted labels, as returned by a classifier.

      • When using y_score, input will be 2d-array of shape (n_samples, n_classes,) corresponds to probability estimates provided by the predict_proba method. In addition, the order of the class scores must correspond to the order of labels, if provided in the metric function, or else to the numerical or lexicographical order of the labels in y_true.

    • The metric additional kwargs should be a dictionary that specifies the additional arguments that need to be passed into the metric function.

Example: {'weighted_f1': (sklearn.metrics.f1_score, {'average': 'weighted'})}

train_verbosebool, default=False

Controls the verbosity during ensemble training/fitting.

  • False: disable training verbose.

  • True: print the performance score to sys.stdout after the parallel training finished.

Returns
selfobject

The fitted instance.

get_params(deep=True)

Get parameters for this estimator.

Parameters
deepbool, default=True

If True, will return the parameters for this estimator and contained subobjects that are estimators.

Returns
paramsdict

Parameter names mapped to their values.

property n_features_

DEPRECATED: Attribute n_features_ was deprecated in version 1.0 and will be removed in 1.2. Use n_features_in_ instead.

Number of features when fitting the estimator.

predict(X)

Predict class for X.

The predicted class of an input sample is a vote by the trees in the forest, weighted by their probability estimates. That is, the predicted class is the one with highest mean probability estimate across the trees.

Parameters
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)

The input samples. Internally, its dtype will be converted to dtype=np.float32. If a sparse matrix is provided, it will be converted into a sparse csr_matrix.

Returns
yndarray of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs)

The predicted classes.

predict_log_proba(X)

Predict class log-probabilities for X.

The predicted class log-probabilities of an input sample is computed as the log of the mean predicted class probabilities of the trees in the forest.

Parameters
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)

The input samples. Internally, its dtype will be converted to dtype=np.float32. If a sparse matrix is provided, it will be converted into a sparse csr_matrix.

Returns
pndarray of shape (n_samples, n_classes), or a list of such arrays

The class probabilities of the input samples. The order of the classes corresponds to that in the attribute classes_.

predict_proba(X)

Predict class probabilities for X.

The predicted class probabilities of an input sample are computed as the mean predicted class probabilities of the trees in the forest. The class probability of a single tree is the fraction of samples of the same class in a leaf.

Parameters
X{array-like, sparse matrix} of shape (n_samples, n_features)

The input samples. Internally, its dtype will be converted to dtype=np.float32. If a sparse matrix is provided, it will be converted into a sparse csr_matrix.

Returns
pndarray of shape (n_samples, n_classes), or a list of such arrays

The class probabilities of the input samples. The order of the classes corresponds to that in the attribute classes_.

score(X, y, sample_weight=None)

Return the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.

In multi-label classification, this is the subset accuracy which is a harsh metric since you require for each sample that each label set be correctly predicted.

Parameters
Xarray-like of shape (n_samples, n_features)

Test samples.

yarray-like of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs)

True labels for X.

sample_weightarray-like of shape (n_samples,), default=None

Sample weights.

Returns
scorefloat

Mean accuracy of self.predict(X) wrt. y.

set_params(**params)

Set the parameters of this estimator.

The method works on simple estimators as well as on nested objects (such as Pipeline). The latter have parameters of the form <component>__<parameter> so that it’s possible to update each component of a nested object.

Parameters
**paramsdict

Estimator parameters.

Returns
selfestimator instance

Estimator instance.

Examples using imbalanced_ensemble.ensemble.BalancedRandomForestClassifier